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Patricia Vergine Sacra, con il compendio delle reliquie, che si conservano nella chiesa del Monasterio di detta Santa in Napoli. Noncupati Pii. In so doing, academies were also assigned crucial portions of the public space. These included street areas where rulers were expected to pass; entrances to churches; and areas within indoor sacred spaces where viewers sitting in the most privileged seats could admire emblems, mottos and encomiastic verse that groups of academicians had been commissioned to produce.
These areas were enriched with emblems, poetry, inscriptions and dedications that functioned as a public epitome for religious and secular figures and consequently as a form of public affirmation for academies. On some occasions academies worked together in organizing events, an example being the tribute to the death of Queen Margaret of Austria, wife of Philip III, organized in by the Oziosi and the Sileni academies.
Displayed on the pedestals positioned below an eight-columned Castellana, catafalque , the Oziosi homage to the Queen of Spain consisted of a series of emblems embellished with encomiastic compositions framed within: una Scala Platonica, che consiste ne quattro elementi, e ne gli otto Cieli assignando il p [rimo]. Il Negletto. Accademico Ozioso. Divise in tre parti Naples: Longo, , Battista Manso, marchese di Villa, Principe della predetta accademia e di Gio. Andrea di Paolo, Socio della Accad. This was also a public recognition of the position of the Oziosi academy as a state-legitimized cultural and political institution.
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In organizing public events of both a religious and secular nature, academies developed a patterned scheme which employed the use of images and of three major forms of poetry: short anagrammatic compositions, inscriptions, and eulogies. In June , a sumptuous event was organized to celebrate simultaneously the feast of Saint John the Baptist and the seventh anniversary of Duke Antonio Alvarez Toledo as Viceroy of Naples. On that occasion, rich ornamentations transformed the city into a stage for a public display of abundance and prosperity.
With its embellished streets framed by balconies from which cascaded exotic brocades, people exulting at the procession of the Viceroy and his entourage as it passed, Naples projected an idealized image; a living fresco of beauty and collective happiness. This was not unusual in early modern Naples as stars, planets and astrological signs were also the subjects of scholarly debate. Observing and classifying: academies and science Away from public scrutiny, astrology and astronomy were hot topics in erudite academic speeches and became major subjects of scientific enquiry.
Moreover, empiricism and naturalism, often framed within an anti-Aristotelian approach to cosmology had all found their way into Neapolitan circles. Et Eccellentiss. Signore D. Giugno Per il settimo Anno del suo Governo Naples: Beltrano, , 51 and As a scholar and an active member of the Oziosi circle and the Lincei Academy which opened a branch in Naples in , Della Porta studied optics and devised a combination of concave and convex lenses allegedly used by Galileo Galilei for his telescope.
Venice, Giunti, , Very little is known on Secreti academicians. Eventually organized into twenty books, Magia naturalis included sections on pharmacy, botany, mineralogy, metallurgy, optics, gemmology, chemistry, cosmetics, and magic. Here scientists and physicians carried out research on animals, the human body and curative natural substances. Moreover, medicine was in some cases linked to alchemy, as metals, stones, and minerals were often used to clean the body of all impurities that were commonly believed to be a cause of disease.
Antonio Pellegrino. Geronimo Cardano.
Guglielmo Grattaroli. Catharinae apud Formellum de Neapoli. De Pred. Libri Quattro Naples: Roncagliolo, Baptistae Portae Neap. Octo Libris Contenta Naples: Salviano, See Gio. Composti in lingua Francese dal Sig. Andrea Lorenzo, Medico Fisico del Christ. Tradotti in lingua Italiana, e commentati da Fr. Divisa in due parti. Ferrante Imperato in Naples and the papal physician Michele Mercati in Rome created museums of nature considered the wonders of the sixteenth century. A volcanic land with seismic activity, the bay of Naples offered plenty of opportunities for scientists wishing to carry out field research.
At dawn that day Mount Vesuvius erupted causing one of the most devastating volcanic explosions since 79 AD. From late December , as the volcano continued to erupt and the city of Naples was being repeatedly hit by earthquakes, Neapolitan printers started to publish a variety of accounts, news books, diaries, treatises, and books on Mount Vesuvius that would soon circulate throughout Europe.
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Nella quale ordinatamente si tratta della diversa condition di miniere, e pietre. In recording this event the role of academies was crucial as it was in these circles that Vesuvius became the subject of a multidisciplinary debate that ranged from science to politics and from religion to poetry. Neapolitan academies looked at Mount Vesuvius as a subject for scientific investigation in the fields of geology, seismology, volcanology, and astrology.
Horrified by the eruption yet at the same time fascinated by an occurrence unprecedented in living memory, Neapolitan scholars narrated the sequence of catastrophic events, often positioning Mount Vesuvius within a religious and political discourse that simultaneously served—albeit mainly unwittingly—a wider need for propaganda.
This was certainly the case for a typology of texts on Mount Vesuvius published by prominent politicians and clergymen such as Giovan Bernardino Giuliani, who held the office of Seggio del Popolo secretary, Giulio Cesare Capaccio, who held the office of Secretary of the city, and the Jesuit Giulio Cesare Recupito whose Latin text on Mount Vesuvius published in was translated into Italian in Furchheim di Emilio Prass Editore, A list of books published during and after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius is contained in Jane E. Composto dal P. Giulio Cesare Recupito Napol. Oziosi, Infuriati, and Erranti academicians positioned Vesuvius within a debate on science that ranged from astrology to medicine.
Its unpolished style may also tell us that Giovino wrote it in a short period of time. In some cases science went so far as to anthropomorphize Mount Vesuvius and compare it to the human body. Here Medicine and Vulcanology met in a mutually shared space. Di Dicembre. The necessity of having to position ruling institutions as figures able to speak with patron saints and fight with demons was a statement of the pervasive control they exercised on all aspects of Neapolitan life. Such control included, of course, academies and intellectuals whose existence depended on the extent to which they did not push the boundaries of orthodoxy.
Conclusion As we have seen, in the early seventeenth century Naples was an important capital with an international port and a distinctive urban architecture. As a multicultural center with a complex social fabric, Naples—like all cities—had a constant need for stability. Moments of acute crisis due to changes in political power, social unrest, heavy taxation, and natural catastrophes, were some of the main reasons that led the state to use propaganda.
Within this context, the role played by academies was crucial. They fulfilled a variety of tasks including organizing religious and secular public events which functioned as statements of power. The support academies provided to state-sponsored programs made them more than venues simply aimed at encouraging learned sociability. On the contrary, academies often became civic and political symbols which 96 See Brian Richardson, Manuscript culture in Renaissance Italy Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Books published within Neapolitan academies circulated throughout Europe often encouraging an intellectual network that positioned Naples as a major center within the Republic of Letters.
Within such a vibrant intellectual milieu, however, dissidence was barely tolerated. Despite the absence of a Tribunal of the Inquisition in Naples, the authorities nonetheless imposed strict constraints on freedom of expression. Accordingly, censorship was imposed on academies and their activities through rigorous control of the press.
Members of the highest echelons of Neapolitan society were often part of panels of censors responsible for issuing imprimatur consonant with state and religious policies. During the first half of the seventeenth century this power was exercised through several pragmatic sanctions. Indeed, so strict was press control that censors were even required to examine books after they had been printed but before they were distributed to Neapolitan booksellers.
The strict control on books published within academies may thus partly explain why historians have found it difficult to provide evidence of both political and religious dissent within Neapolitan academic circles. Even so, there was an underground culture among Neapolitan intellectuals which was regarded suspiciously by authorities. Neapolitan circles became international venues for intellectuals who travelled to Naples, purchased and read multidisciplinary texts published within academies, joined local circles and helped spread news about the city.
Neapolitan academies also twinned with similar circles flourishing in other Italian cities. This was certainly the case for the Lincei and the Umoristi academies in Rome which collaborated with Neapolitan circles by encouraging mutual membership, the exchange of knowledge, and the joint publication of books. Neapolitan books had a wide circulation often becoming part of the private libraries of collectors, aristocrats, intellectuals and polymaths. In some cases, due to restrictions imposed on freedom of expression, Naples forced thinkers such as Tommaso Campanella to escape abroad where the successful publication of his books became the first sign of his enduring legacy.
It is an irony to think that some of the best known figures who benefitted from that milieu owe their fame to publications issued outside the ambit of academies and indeed in more liberal European cities. Paolo Antonio Foscarini Carmelitano. The National Archive, London. Dispacci Ambasciatori veneziani a Napoli. Filza 5, n. State Archive, Venice. Manuscript sources Biblioteca Gerolamini, Naples. MS Coll Lettione giocosa sopra il tabacco. Giovino, Giovanni Tommaso. Ursino Recupero Library, Catania. Ms Thomas Fisher Library, Toronto. Ms MS X National Library, Naples.
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