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Producer countries, on the other hand, tend to impose high tariffs and restrictions on exports. At the same time they often subsidise domestic consumption for political reasons, thus providing incentives against greater energy efficiency. Insofar as these subsidies are non-discriminatory, they do not contravene the WTO Subsidies Agreement.

It remains to be seen whether the pledge made by the delegates to the Group of 20 G Pittsburgh summit in , namely to abolish in the medium term all subsidies which encourage energy waste, will be borne out in reality. In addition to their worries over energy security, industrialised countries have recently expressed concerns over their supply of rare-earth minerals for manufacturing high-tech products for example, satellites, lightweight batteries, mobile telephones or wind turbines.

For instance, German industrialists complained that Chinese officials threatened to stop supplying these rare-earth minerals, 93 per cent of which are produced in China Dempsey, The aims of these initiatives include the promotion of extractive revenue transparency and respect for human rights in the security management of oil and mining operations.

Catalog Record: Energy security : historical perspectives and | HathiTrust Digital Library

These initiatives rely on market and political incentives to change the behaviour of key stakeholders, starting with the producer states and extractive industries, while at the same time making civil society responsible for promoting and monitoring these initiatives at global and local levels. Nevertheless, some of them have succeeded in increasing their effectiveness by progressively resorting to different behavioural pathways to effect change Carbonnier, Brugger and Krause, The standards laid down by the stakeholders are sometimes made binding legislation within participating states. For instance, the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights were appended to the concession contract awarded by the Indonesian government to British Petroleum for gas exploitation in West Papua, thus becoming the benchmark in terms of security management.

In addition, after a decade of efforts the Publish What You Pay coalition of NGOs, together with supporters of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative EITI , succeeded in bringing the US government to enact legislation requiring that oil and mining companies publish the payments that they make to host governments.

The first part looks at the geopolitical challenges with regard to energy resources and their impact on development, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also considers the strengths and weaknesses of global governance in the energy sector. The second part analyses the evolution of development aid projects in the energy sector. She analyses how increasing competition between the US, China and European countries is limiting the access enjoyed by exporting countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to their own energy resources and is weakening energy security on the African continent.

Sijbren De Jong illustrates how the tension surrounding energy security has been exacerbated by a combination of rising energy demand from emerging economies, diminishing hydrocarbon reserves and constraints linked to climate change. The author regrets that the architecture of global energy governance has not been strengthened to address these challenges.

Axel and Katharina Michaelowa present the results of original research into the evolution of bilateral development aid projects in the energy sector. Contrary to expectations, the proportion of projects dedicated to renewable energies or energy efficiency has barely increased since The percentage of projects focused on traditional renewable energies such as hydropower and geothermal energy has fallen, while the number of aid projects involving solar or wind energy peaked once in the s and again during the s.

Even more surprising is the fact that the marked differences between individual donors do not mirror the divide between those countries that are climate policy pioneers or laggards. Guy Bonvin presents the conclusions of an independent evaluation of Swiss development cooperation projects in the energy sector implemented over the past 20 years in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

He underlines the fact that the success of such projects requires not only innovative technologies and approaches but also an appropriate institutional framework and more coherence in energy policy from an economic, social and environmental point of view. On numerous occasions the Indian government has reiterated its desire to promote clean energies, something which would require major financial and technological support from Western countries. Megha Shenoy, Grishma Jain and Tara Parthasarathy argue that India should adopt a strategic development framework that is not associated with intensive carbon emissions.

The challenge is to promote an inclusive growth capable of reducing inequality and improving the quality of life of the Indian people while at the same time taking account of local and global environmental constraints. Pamela L. Martin focuses on Ecuador within the context of the reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation REDD initiatives. This example illustrates the increasing potential power of local networks linked to transnational movements, which are able to push for the institutionalisation of alternative approaches to environmental governance.

Managing the growing tensions resulting from this situation requires increased cooperation on the part of industrialised countries, emerging economies and poor countries, with each country bearing differentiated responsibilities and having different financial and technological capacities. Nobody yet knows what the next chapter in the story of dwindling hydrocarbons will be, whether the slide down the other side of the peak will be slow or abrupt, voluntary and regulated or chaotic, serene or violent.

The challenge is planning how the remaining reserves are to be used up 19 and moving towards sustainable economic and consumption patterns while supporting development capacities in the most disadvantaged countries. Intensified efforts should focus on providing electricity to the 1. Research has shown that supplying electricity to villages by means of small local units in these regions can make a significant indirect contribution towards cutting infant malnutrition, most notably through its impact on female labour.

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In the major urban centres the challenge is to reduce the energy consumption intensity. On the one hand, governments must supply the regulatory framework as well as the incentives taxes and subsidies in support of less energy-intensive consumption patterns and of renewable energy sources. On the other hand, fashion trends play an undeniable role in the models of household consumption. In the sphere of architecture and urban planning there is an urgent need to reassess approaches and to provide solutions adapted to local conditions.

For several years experts have insisted on the urgent need to take corrective action to prevent serious crises in future that will require painful adjustments. The lack of resolute policy decision reflects the fact that politics and economics follow short-term cycles and are disconnected from the geological temporality and realities.

In all probability, the energy crisis looks set to provoke shocks of much greater severity before key decision-makers eventually take appropriate action. It is to be hoped that, as the portents increase, international cooperation in the energy sector will become much more efficient so as to prevent the escalation of violent confrontations over the control of energy resources and to boost the development of renewable energy. Auty, R. Ayres, R. Bhabha, H. Campbell, C. Carbonnier, G. Brugger and J. Carnot, S. Chevalier, J. Cipolla, C. Costanza, R.

Internet Encyclopaedia of Ecological Economics. Cottrell, F. Daly, H. Deffeyes, K. Dempsey, J.

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Erkman, S. Fouquet, R. Georgescu-Roegen, N. Grinevald, J. Headrick, D. Heinberg, R. Hubbert, M. Jevons, W. Kempf, H. Krishnan, R. Harris and N. Lovell, B. Marsh, G.


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Xu, X. Yergin, D. Youngquist, W. Lotka, quoted by Georgescu-Roegen, , in the new mode of industrial production. The second law of the mechanical theory of heat was also established by Rankine and Clausius.


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Cold societies are typified in particular by the manner in which they use the natural environment, which guarantees both their modest way of life and the protection of resources. Hot societies denote the thermo-industrial civilisation. The subject of the destruction of natural resources was also raised back in by the American ambassador to Italy, George Perkins Marsh —82 , through his major work Man and Nature Marsh, On the origins see Costanza See Grinevald , Indeed, classical economists argue in relative terms, compared with their monetary measure of economic growth.

Ecologists argue in absolute values, in terms of impact on ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole which includes the stability of its climate system. See Erkman His research and teaching focus on international cooperation, humanitarianism, energy, the governance of natural resources and the political economy of war. Before joining the Graduate Institute he gained 20 years of professional experience in international trade, development cooperation and humanitarian action.

Professor of Global Ecology, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva; philosopher and historian of scientific and technological development; member of the Geological Society of London. Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.

Published by the Graduate Institute Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations. Contents - Previous document - Next document. Abstract Published by Palgrave Macmillan This chapter introduces the thematic dossier of International Development Policy on the intimate relationship between energy and development.

Energy policy

Outline 1. Energy and development: a historical survey. Towards an energy-guzzling civilisation. Geological times, economic cycles and historical irreversibility. Abundant energy resources: a blessing for poor countries? Introducing the thematic dossier on energy and development. Full text PDF Send by e-mail. It is the urgent need to protect valuables such as these which legitimizes and makes essential the role of national security.

The U. A collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign relations of the United States. Specifically, the condition provided by: a. In , the White House included an all-encompassing world-view in a national security strategy which identified "security" as one of the country's "four enduring national interests" that were "inexorably intertwined": [44].

To achieve the world we seek, the United States must apply our strategic approach in pursuit of four enduring national interests:. Each of these interests is inextricably linked to the others: no single interest can be pursued in isolation, but at the same time, positive action in one area will help advance all four. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has said that, "The countries that threaten regional and global peace are the very places where women and girls are deprived of dignity and opportunity".

It introduced a differentiated approach, such as: identifying existing and emerging cybersecurity threats, finding and plugging existing cyber vulnerabilities, and apprehending actors that trying to gain access to secure federal information systems. To reflect on institutionalization of new bureaucratic infrastructures and governmental practices in the post- World War II period in the U. For most of US history, the physical security of the continental United States had not been in jeopardy.

But by , this invulnerability was rapidly diminishing with the advent of long-range bombers, atom bombs, and ballistic missiles. A general perception grew that the future would not allow time to mobilize, that preparation would have to become constant. For the first time, American leaders would have to deal with the essential paradox of national security faced by the Roman Empire and subsequent great powers: Si vis pacem, para bellum — If you want peace, prepare for war. The military is largest in the world with 2. State of the national security of Republic of India is determined by its internal stability and geopolitical interests.

While Islamic upsurge in Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir demanding secession and far left wing terrorism in India's red corridor remain some key issues in India's internal security, terrorism from Pakistan based militant groups has been emerging as a major concern for New Delhi. National Security Advisor of India heads National Security Council of India , receives all kinds of intelligence reports and is chief advisor to the Prime Minister of India over national and international security policy. National Security Council has India's defence , foreign , home , finance ministers and deputy chairman of NITI Aayog as its members and is responsible for shaping strategies for India's security in all aspects.

In the years and , Russia adopted documents titled "National Security Concept" that described Russia's global position, the country's interests, listed threats to national security and described the means to counter those threats. In , these documents were superseded by the " National Security Strategy to ". The key body responsible for coordination of policies related to Russia's national security is the Security Council of Russia. According to provision 6 of the National Security Strategy to , national security is "the situation in which the individual, the society and the state enjoy protection from foreign and domestic threats to the degree that ensures constitutional rights and freedoms, decent quality of life for citizens, as well as sovereignty, territorial integrity and stable development of the Russian Federation, the defense and security of the state.

The National Security Council is a committee of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and was created as part of a wider reform of the national security apparatus. Conceptualizing and understanding the National Security choices and challenges of African States is a difficult task. This is due to the fact that it is often not rooted in the understanding of their mostly disrupted state formation and their often imported process of state building. Although Post-Cold War conceptualizations of Security have broadened, the policies and practices of many African states still privilege national security as being synonymous with state security and even more narrowly- regime security.

The problem with the above is that a number of African states be specific have been unable to govern their security in meaningful ways. Often failing to be able to claim the monopoly of force in their territories. Examples of such states are South Sudan and Somalia. Media related to National security at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see National security disambiguation. For other uses, see National defense disambiguation. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Elements of national security and Elements of national power. Main article: Military security. See also: Terrorism , Border guard , and Military aggression. Main article: Economic security. Main article: Environmental security. See also: Climate change and national security. Main article: Energy security. Main article: Computer security. See also: Civil liberties , Human rights , and Mass surveillance.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Main article: National security of the United States. Main article: Hillary Doctrine. Main article: National security of China. Main article: National Security Council India. Defining national security: the nonmilitary aspects. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 22 September National Security: Imperatives And Challenges. Retrieved 23 September Pg As quoted in Watson, Cynthia Ann Contemporary world issues 2 revised ed. Retrieved 24 September Peace and security for the s. As quoted in Romm , p. Retrieved London: Pluto Press.

The Economist. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Weather, Climate, and Society. Retrieved 26 September Archived from the original PDF on Journal of World Energy Law and Business. Archived from the original on London, UK. UN News Service Section. Prosperity without growth: economics for a finite planet.

London: Earthscan. Robert T. Davis ed.